Verb: Passive

The Passive

Passive verbs are made up of:

  1. The Present Stem
  2. The passive infix: Either present: -رێ-or past: –را-
  3. The Past Verb Ending for who or what the action is done to

Examples:

Infinitive:

Present passive:

Past Passive:

بینین

‘to see’

ئەبینرێ

‘is being seen’

بینرا

‘was seen’

فرۆشتن

‘to sell’

ئەفرۆشرێ

‘is being sold’

فرۆشرا

‘was sold’

خوێندن

‘to study’

ئەخوێنرێ

‘is being studied’

خوێندرا

‘was studied’

Exceptions:

Infinitive:

Stem:

Present passive:

Past Passive:

ووتن

ووت

ئەووترێ

‘is being said’

ووترا

‘was said’

گرتن

گی

ئەگیرێ

‘is being taken’

گیرا

‘was taken’

خواردن

خو

ئەخورێ

‘is being eaten’

خورا

‘was eaten’

كردن

ك

ئەكرێ

‘is being done’

كرا

‘was done’

دان

د

ئەدرێ

‘is being given’

درا

‘was given’

Use of the passive:

The passive is used for polite commands or statements, as the verb participle (similar to the ‘–ing’ ending put on English verbs), or when the person doing the action is not known or is not specified.

Example for polite command or statement:

شیرم بەرێ. ‘Give me [the] milk [please].’
پێم ناورێ. ‘I cannot eat’

Example of participle:

كراوەیە ‘open’
داخراوە ‘it is closed’
دروست كراوە ‘it is made’

Example of unknown or unspecified person:

ئەم كتێبە نوسراوە. ‘This book was written’
كتێبی نوسراو. ‘Written book’
دەوترێت ‘It is said/[people] say’