Verbs: Imperative and Negative

The Imperative

Imperative verbs are made up of:

1) The prefix ب-

2) Present Verb Stem

3) The suffix

a. Singular: –ە

b. Plural: –ن

Examples:

كڕین ‘to buy’
بكڕی! ‘You, buy!’
بكڕین! ‘Ya’ll, buy!’ (i.e. 'you' plural)
گرتن ‘to take’
بگرە! ‘Take!’
بگرن! ‘Ya’ll, take!’

Exercise: Write the imperative form of each verb that you have learned so far.

Negation of present tense verbs

Negative present tense verbs are made up of:

1) The prefix نا-

2) The Present Verb Stem

3) The Personal Verb Ending for who or what is not doing the action.

Examples:

گرتن 'to take'
ئەگرم ‘I take/will take’
ناگرم 'I do not/will not take'
بینین ‘to see’
ئەبینن 'they see/will see’
نابینن ‘they do not/will not see’

To negate imperatives, use the prefix مە- instead of the prefix ب-

خواردن ‘to eat’
بخۆ! ‘eat!’
مەخۆ! ‘don’t eat!’

*Note the exception: بوون ‘to be’ uses the prefix نی- in the present tense

ئەمە گوڵە 'this is a flower’
ئەمە گوڵنیە ‘this is not a flower’
هەمانە ‘we have it’
نیمانە ‘we do not have it’

Note: do not add the –ە if there already is a vowel at the end of the Present Verb Stem