Verbs: Past Tense

Past Tense Intransitive Verbs

The Past Tense Stem is formed by taking off the last letter of the Verb Infinitive. There are no exceptions.

Examples:

Infinitive:

English:

Past Tense Stem:

كردن

‘to do’

كرد-

بوون

‘to be’

بوو-

ووتن

‘to say’

ووت-

خواردن

‘to eat’

خوارد-

Sorani has four main past tenses; simple past, perfect, past perfect, and past continuous. They are formed as follows:

‘Simple Past’ e.g. ‘I went’

  1. Past stem
  2. Present Verb Ending for who or what did the action

‘Perfect’ e.g. ‘I have gone’

  1. Past stem
  2. -وو-
  3. Present Verb Ending for who or what did the action

‘Past perfect’ e.g. ‘I had gone’

  1. Past stem
  2. -بوو-
  3. Present Verb Ending for who or what did the action

‘Past continuous’ ‘I was going’

  1. دە-
  2. Past stem
  3. Present Verb Ending for who or what did the action

Example:

ڕابردوو

‘Simple Past ‘

ڕابردووی تەواو

‘Perfect’

ڕابردووی دوور

‘Past Perfect’

‘Past continuous’

من ڕۆشتم

ڕۆیشتووم

ڕۆیشتبووم

دەڕۆیشتم

تۆ ڕۆیشتیت

ڕۆیشتوویت

ڕۆیشتبوویت

دەڕۆیشتیت

ئەو ڕۆیشت

ڕۆیشتووە

ڕۆیشتبوو

دەڕۆیشت

ئێمە ڕۆیشتین

ڕۆیشتووین

ڕۆیشتبووین

دەڕۆیشتین

ئەوان ڕۆیشتن

ڕۆیشتوون

ڕۆیشتبوون

دەڕۆیشتن

ئەوان ڕۆیشتن

ڕۆیشتوون

ڕۆیشتبوون

دەڕۆیشتن

AnchorNote: 'he/she/it’ does not have the regular –ە ending; add nothing at all.

Past Tense Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs demand a different way of expressing the past tense. The conjugated part attaches to who or what the action is done to, not to the person or thing doing the action.

Past Tense Transitive Verbs are made up of:

  1. Past Tense Stem
  2. Present Verb Ending for who or what the action is done to

Add the present verb ending that goes with the subject to the noun, if there is one.

خواردبوومان ‘We ate it’

سێومان خوارد ‘We ate apples’

دارێكیان بینی ‘They saw a tree’

Exercise: write sentences in the past with the verbs that you know.