Verbs: Present/Future Tense

Conjugation of regular verbs in present and future

A regularly conjugated present/future verb is made up of:

1) the prefix [1] -ئە

2) the Present Verb Stem

3) the Personal Verb Ending for who or what is doing the action

Example:

ئەبینم

- م

- بین -

ئە -

1st person singular

present verb stem

present/future prefix

‘I’

‘see’

‘is/will’

‘I see’

To get the present verb stem, take off the last two letters of the infinitive form of the verb.

بینین ‘to see’

بین ‘see’ present verb stem

Personal Verb Endings:

‘I’

-ین

‘we’

-یت

‘you’ [2]

‘you all’

-ێت

‘he/she/it’ [3]

‘they’

Examples:

من ئەبینم

‘I see/will see’

ئێمە ئەبینین

‘we see/will see’

تۆ ئەبینیت

‘you see/will see’

ئێوە ئەبینن

‘you all see/will see’

ئەو ئەبینێت

‘he/she/it sees/will see’

ئەوان ئەبینن

‘they see/will see’

Exercise: Write a sentence using each of the following verbs with different personal endings. Then, check your work with the list of conjugated verbs under the سۆرانی كوردش tab for this page.

گرتن ‘to take’

هێنان ‘to bring’

فرۆشتن ‘to sell’

زانین ‘to know’

ناسین ‘to be familiar with’

كڕین ‘to buy’

Conjugation of Irregular Verbs in Present/Future Tense

The present verb stem of these eight verbs need to be memorized:

Verb Infinitive

Present/future Stem

English

ڕۆیشتن

-ڕۆ-

‘to depart’

خواردن

-خۆ-

‘to eat’

شتن

-شۆ-

‘to wash’

خستن

-خە-

‘to put down’

گەیشتن

-گە-

‘to arrive’

بردن

-بە-

‘to take’

كردن

-كە-

‘to do’

دان

-دە-

‘to give’

These eight irregular verbs take different personal endings for ‘he/she/it’ than regular verbs do. See the example conjugations below:

كردن

‘to do’

من ئەكەم

ئێمە ئەكەین

تۆ ئەكەیت

ئێوە ئەكەن

ئەو ئەكات

ئەوان ئەكەن

خواردن

‘to eat’

من ئەخۆم

ئێمە ئەخۆین

تۆ ئەخۆیت

ئێوە ئەخۆن

ئەو ئەخوات

ئەوان ئەخۆن


[1] دە- is more commonly used for formal writing, particularly outside of Slemani

[2] in Slemani, the final ت is often not pronounced

[3] in Slemani, the final ت is often not pronounced